Generating Proofs: Basics

An end-to-end flow of proving f(x) = y with the SP1 zkVM involves the following steps:

  • Define f using normal Rust code and compile it to an ELF (covered in the writing programs section).
  • Setup a proving key (pk) and verifying key (vk) for the program given the ELF. The proving key contains all the information needed to generate a proof and includes some post-processing on top of the ELF, while the verifying key is a compact representation of the ELF that contains all the information needed to verify a proof and is much smaller than the ELF itself.
  • Generate a proof π using the SP1 zkVM that f(x) = y with prove(pk, x).
  • Verify the proof π using verify(vk, x, y, π).

To make this more concrete, let's walk through a simple example of generating a proof for a Fiboancci program inside the zkVM.


use sp1_sdk::{utils, ProverClient, SP1Proof, SP1Stdin};

/// The ELF we want to execute inside the zkVM.
const ELF: &[u8] = include_bytes!("../../program/elf/riscv32im-succinct-zkvm-elf");

fn main() {
    // Setup logging.

    // Create an input stream and write '500' to it.
    let n = 500u32;

    let mut stdin = SP1Stdin::new();

    // Generate the proof for the given program and input.
    let client = ProverClient::new();
    let (pk, vk) = client.setup(ELF);
    let mut proof = client.prove(&pk, stdin).unwrap();

    println!("generated proof");

    // Read and verify the output.
    let _ =<u32>();
    let a =<u32>();
    let b =<u32>();

    println!("a: {}", a);
    println!("b: {}", b);

    // Verify proof and public values
    client.verify(&proof, &vk).expect("verification failed");

    // Test a round trip of proof serialization and deserialization.
        .expect("saving proof failed");
    let deserialized_proof = SP1Proof::load("proof-with-pis.bin").expect("loading proof failed");

    // Verify the deserialized proof.
        .verify(&deserialized_proof, &vk)
        .expect("verification failed");

    println!("successfully generated and verified proof for the program!")

You can run the above script in the script directory with RUST_LOG=info cargo run --release.

Build Script

If you want your program crate to be built automatically whenever you build/run your script crate, you can add a file inside of script/ (at the same level as Cargo.toml):

fn main() {
    sp1_helper::build_program(&format!("{}/../program", env!("CARGO_MANIFEST_DIR")));

Make sure to also add sp1-helper as a build dependency in script/Cargo.toml:

sp1-helper = { git = "" }

If you run RUST_LOG=info cargo run --release -vv, you will see the following output from the build script if the program has changed, indicating that the program was rebuilt:

[fibonacci-script 0.1.0] cargo:rerun-if-changed=../program/src
[fibonacci-script 0.1.0] cargo:rerun-if-changed=../program/Cargo.toml
[fibonacci-script 0.1.0] cargo:rerun-if-changed=../program/Cargo.lock
[fibonacci-script 0.1.0] cargo:warning=fibonacci-program built at 2024-03-02 22:01:26
[fibonacci-script 0.1.0] [sp1]    Compiling fibonacci-program v0.1.0 (/Users/umaroy/Documents/fibonacci/program)
[fibonacci-script 0.1.0] [sp1]     Finished release [optimized] target(s) in 0.15s
warning: fibonacci-script@0.1.0: fibonacci-program built at 2024-03-02 22:01:26```